Here are the studies we have found most useful in our own diabetes research.  You will find them referenced in various places on our site.  We provide them here so you can dig into the studies and do your own research.  

General Diabetes Information

  1. American Diabetes Association. Infographic: a snapshot of diabetes in America.
  2. American Diabetes Association. Statistics about diabetes.

Normal Blood Sugar 

  1. The Genetic Basis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Impaired Insulin Secretion Versus Impaired Insulin Sensitivity. John E. Gerich. Endocrine Reviews 19 (4): 491-503 
  2. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men. Tirosh A et al. N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 6;353(14):1454-62 
  3. Is Reduced First-Phase Insulin Release the Earliest Detectable Abnormality in Individuals Destined to Develop Type 2 Diabetes? John E. Gerich. Diabetes 51:S117-S121, 2002 
  4. What is Normal Glucose? – Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data from Healthy Subjects. Professor J.S. Christiansen. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the EASD. 
  5. Variation of Interstitial Glucose Measurements Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitors in Healthy, Nondiabetic Individuals. Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Continuous Glucose Monitoring Study Group. Diabetes Care June 2010 vol. 33 no. 6 1297-1299. 
  6. Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 27:S5-S10, 2004 

How Diabetes Develops 

  1. You can read the history of how the American Diabetes Association set the arbitrary blood sugar levels used to diagnose diabetes at: 
  2. The Natural History of Progression from Normal Glucose Tolerance to Type 2 Diabetes in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. James B. Meigs et al. Diabetes 52:1475-1484, 2003 
  3. Natural History of Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion in the Progression From Normal Glucose Tolerance to Impaired Fasting Glycemia and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: The Inter99 Study. Kristine Færch et al. Diabetes Care, 32:439-444, 2009. 
  4. Mode of Onset of Type 2 Diabetes from Normal or Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Ele Ferrannini et al. Diabetes 53(1) 160-5 2003. 
  5. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among US Adults: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Earl S. Ford et al. JAMA. 2002;287:356-359 
  6. Prevalence of Obesity, Diabetes, and Obesity-Related Health Risk Factors, 2001. Ali H. Mokdad et al. JAMA 2003;289:76-79
  7. Down-Regulation of Diacylglycerol Kinase Delta Contributes to Hyperglycemia-Induced Insulin Resistance. Alexander V. Chibalin et al. Cell Vol 132, 375-386
  8. Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Fasting Hyperglycaemia Have Different Characteristics. Davies MJ et al. Diabet Med 2000 Jun;17(6):433-40 
  9. Beta Cell Dysfunction and Glucose Intolerance: Results from the San Antonio Metabolism (SAM) Study. Gastaldelli A et al. Diabetologia 2004 Jan;47(1):31-9. 
  10. Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Impaired Fasting Glycaemia and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Mauritius. Does Sex Matter? Williams JW et al. Diabetic Medicine 20 (11) 915 2003 
  11. ß-Cell Deficit and Increased ß-Cell Apoptosis in Humans with Type 2 Diabetes. Alexandra E. Butler et al. Diabetes 52:102-110, 2003 [The Mayo Patient Pancreas Autopsy Study] 

What Really Causes Diabetes?

   1. Genome-wide association study in individuals of South Asian ancestry identifies six new type 2           diabetes susceptibility loci. Jaspal S. Kooner et al. Nature Genetics, 2011;

  2. Genome-wide association study in individuals of South Asian ancestry identifies six new type 2           diabetes susceptibility loci. Jaspal S. Kooner et al. Nature Genetics, 2011; 

  3. A variant near MTNR1B is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2                diabetes risk. Nabila Bouatia-Naji et al. Nature Genetics 41, 89 - 94 (2008) 

  4. Beta cell glucose sensitivity is decreased by 39% in non-diabetic in-dividuals carrying multiple             diabetes-risk alleles compared with those with no risk alleles. L. Pascoe et al. Diabetologia,                     Volume 51, Number 11 / November, 2008. 

  5. Clinical Risk Factors, DNA Variants, and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes. Valeriya Lyssenko         et. al. NEJM, Volume 359:2220-2232, November 20, 2008,Number 21. 

  6.The T allele of rs7903146 TCF7L2 is associated with impaired insuli-notropic action of incretin              hormones, reduced 24 h profiles of plasma insulin and glucagon, and increased hepatic glucose            production in young healthy men. K. Pilgaard et al. Diabetologia, Issue Volume 52, Number 7 /             July, 2009. 

  7.Glucose Tolerance in Adults after Prenatal Exposure to Famine. Ravelli AC et al. Lancet 1998                 Jan 17;351(9097):173-7 

  8.Stable Patterns of Gene Expression Regulating Carbohydrate Metabolism Determined by                      Geographic Ancestry. Jonathan C. Schisler et. al. PLoS One 4(12): e8183. 

  9.Adverse Metabolic Consequences in Humans of Prolonged Sleep Restriction Combined with                 Circadian Disruption. Orfeu M. Buxton et al. Sci Transl Med 11 April 2012:  Vol. 4,  Issue 129,   p.           129ra43

 10.Intrauterine Exposure to Environmental Pollutants and Body Mass Index during the First 3                    Years of Life. Stijn L. Verhulst et al. Environmental Health Perspectives, January 2009, 117(1):               122-126 

 11.Prevalence of Obesity, Diabetes, and Obesity-Related Health Risk Factors, 2001. Ali H. Mokdad         et al. JAMA 2003;289:76-79 

 12.Chronic Exposure to the Herbicide, Atrazine, Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Insulin                   Resistance. Soo Lim et al.  PLoS ONE Published 13 Apr 2009 

 13.Arsenic Exposure and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in US Adults. Ana Navas-Acien et al. JAMA.         2008;300(7):814-822.

 14.The Estrogenic Effect of Bisphenol-A Disrupts the Pancreatic b-Cell Function In Vivo and                          Induces Insulin Resistance. Alonso-Magdalena et al. Environmental Health Perspectives                            113(January):106-112 

 15.Diabetes in Relation to Serum Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Chlorinated Pesticides in           Adult Native Americans. Neculai Codru et al. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 October; 115(10):          1442-1447 

 16.Simvastatin Improves Flow-Mediated Dilation but Reduces Adiponectin Levels and Insulin                     Sensitivity in Hypercholesterolemic Patient. Kwang Kon Koh et al., Diabetes 31:776-782, 2008. 

 17.Statin Use and Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health                    Initiative. Annie L. Culver et al. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(2):144-152.                                                                doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.625 

 18.A Meta-Analysis of 94,492 Patients With Hypertension Treated With Beta Blockers to                               Determine the Risk of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus. Sripal Bangalore , Sanobar Parkar , Ehud               Grossman , Franz H Messerli. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Oct 15;100 (8):1254-1262 17920367 

 19.Antidepressant Use Associated with Increased Type 2 Diabetes Risk. Caroline Cassels.                      Report on research paper presented at 2007 ADA convention.                                                             

 20.Diabetes Mellitus in Long-term Survivors of Childhood Cancer:Med.Vol. 169 No. 15, Aug 10/24,         2009 

 21.Downregulation of Diacylglycerol Kinase Delta Contributes to Hy-perglycemia-Induced Insulin           Resistance. Alexander V. Chibalin et. al. Cell, Volume 132, Issue 3, 375-386, 8 February 2008. 

 22.Insulin Resistance in the First-Degree Relatives of Persons with Type 2 Diabetes. Straczkowski             M et al. Med Sci Monit 2003 May;9(5):CR186-90 

 23.Insulin Resistance in Children of Type 2 Parents who have Abnormal Mitochondria. Petersen KF           et al. New England J Med 2004 Feb 12; 350(7);639-41 

 24.Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Humans and Their Potential Links With                               Mitochondrial Dysfunction. Katsutaro Morino et al. Diabetes 55:S9-S15, 2006 

Blood Sugar Level and Organ Damage

Increased Prevalence of Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Patients with Painful Sensory Neuropathy. Singleton, JR et al. Diabetes Care 24 (8) 1448-1453 2001  

The Spectrum of Neuropathy in Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance. J. Sumner et al. Neurology 2003;60:108-111 

Value of the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in the Evaluation of Chronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy. Charlene Hoffman-Snyder et al. Arch Neurol. 2006; 63:1075-1079 

The Inflammatory Reflex. Kevin J. Tracey. Nature 420, 853-859 (19 December 2002) 

Inflammation markers and metabolic characteristics of subjects with one-hour plasma glucose levels. Gianluca Bardini et al. Diabetes CareFebruary 2010 33:411-413 

Effect of an Intensive Glucose Management Protocol on the Mortality of Critically Ill Adult Patients. Krinsley, James. Mayo Clinic Proc Jan 2004, p. 992-1000 

ß-Cell Death and Mass in Syngeneically Transplanted Islets Exposed to Short- and Long-Term Hyperglycemia. Montserrat Biarnés et al. Diabetes 51:66-72, 2002 

Determinants of Glucose Toxicity and Its Reversibility in Pancreatic Islet Beta Cell Line, HIT-T15. Catherine E. Gleason et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279: E997-E1002, 2000 

ADA Scientific Sessions: Retinopathy Found in Prediabetes. Elizabeth Thompson Beckley. DOC News. August 1, 2005. Volume 2 Number 8 p. 1 

Association of A1C and Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels With Diabetic Retinopathy Prevalence in the U.S. Population: Implications for diabetes diagnostic thresholds Yiling J. Cheng et al. Diabetes Care November 2009 vol. 32 no. 11 2027-2032. doi: 10.2337/dc09-0440 

Glycemic Thresholds for Diabetes-Specific Retinopathy: Implications for Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetes:The DETECT-2 Collaboration Writing group. Stephen Colagiuri et al. Diabetes Care January 2011  vol. 34  no. 1  145-150

Hemoglobin A1c and Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels as Predictors of Retinopathy at 10 Years: The French DESIR Study. Massin P. et al. Arch Ophthalmol.2011 Feb;129(2):188-195 

Prospective Study of Hyperglycemia and Cancer Risk. Pär Stattin et al. Diabetes Care 30:561-567, 2007 

Fifty Percent of Patients with Coronary Artery Disease do Not Have Any of the Conventional Risk Factors. Futterman LG, Lemberg L.Am J Crit Care. 1998 May;7(3):240-4 

Lipids, Risk Factors and Ischaemic Heart Disease. Castelli WP. Atherosclerosis 1996 Jul;124 Suppl:S1-9 Post-challenge blood glucose concentration and

Lipids, Risk Factors and Ischaemic Heart Disease. Castelli WP. Atherosclerosis 1996 Jul;124 Suppl:S1-9 

Post-challenge blood glucose concentration and stroke mortality rates in non-diabetic men in London: 38-year follow-up of the original Whitehall prospective cohort study. G. D. Batty et al. Diabetologia.Vol 51, Num, July, 2008. 

Association of Hemoglobin A1c with Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality in Adults: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk Kay-Tee Khaw et. al. Annals of Internal Medicine Vol 141, no 6, 413-420 

Cardiac Steatosis in Diabetes Mellitus: A 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study. McGavock JM et. al. Circulation. 2007 Sep 4;116(10):1170-5. 

Postmeal Glucose Peaks at Home Associate with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 2 Diabetes. Katherine Esposito et. al. J Clin Endo doi:10.1210/jc.2007-2000 

Glycemic Control and Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Persons With and Without Diabetes. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Elizabeth Selvin et. al. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1910-1916. 

Post-Challenge Glucose Predicts Coronary Atherosclerotic Progression inn Non-Diabetic, Post-Menopausal Women P. B. Mellen et. al. Diabetic Medicine 24 (10), 1156-1159. 

Glycation of LDL by Methylglyoxal Increases Arterial Atherogenicity: A Possible Contributor to Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes. Naila Rabbani et al. Diabetes. Published online before print May 26, 2011.

Postprandial Blood Glucose Predicts Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes in a 14-Year Follow-Up Lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study. Franco Cavalot et al. Diabe-tes Care October 2011 vol. 34 no. 10 2237-2243

Intensive Blood Glucose Control and Vascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. The ADVANCE Collaborative Group. NEJM, Volume 358:2560-2572, June 12, 2008, Number 24 

Effects of Intensive Glucose Lowering in Type 2 Diabetes The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group.[ACCORD] NEJM Volume 358:2545-2559, June 12, 2008 Number 24 

The ACCORD Study Group and ACCORD Eye Study Group. Effects of medical therapies on retinopathy progression in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2010 Jul 15; 363:233. 

Epidemiologic Relationships Between A1C and All-Cause Mortality During a Median 3.4-Year Follow-up of Glycemic Treatment in the ACCORD Trial.  Matthew C. Riddle et al. Diabetes Care May 2010 vol. 33 no. 5 983-990. 

Poor Glycemic Control in Diabetes and the Risk of Incident Chronic Kidney Disease Even in the Absence of Albuminuria and Retinopathy: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Lori D. Bash et al. Arch Intern Med. Vol. 168 No. 22, Dec 8/22, 2008 

Short-term peaks in glucose promote renal fibrogenesis independ-ently of total glucose exposure.T. S. Polhill et al. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 287: F268-F273, 2004. 

Relationship Between GHb Concentration and Erythrocyte Survival Determined From Breath Carbon Monoxide Concentration. Mark A. Virtue Diabetes Care April 2004  vol. 27  no. 4  931-935 A1C: 

Does One Size Fit All? Robert M. Cohen, Diabetes Care October 2007  vol. 30  no. 10  2756-2758 

Minimizing the Health Impact of Having Diabetes

Controlling the Diabetes: Just What Can You Achieve? Roy Taylor, M.D. 

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) 

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) 

Long-Term Results of the Kumamoto Study on Optimal Diabetes Control in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Motoaki Shichiri et al. Diabetes Care Vol 23 Sup 2, 2000 

Effects of Duration of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Insulin Secretion. Farhad Zangeneh, Puneet S. Arora et al. Endocr Pract. 2006;12:388-393 

Mente A, O’Donnell M, Rangarajan S et al. Associations of urinary sodium excretion with cardiovascular events in individuals with and without hypertension: a pooled analysis of data from four studies. Lancet 2016;388(10043):465-475.

Deol P, Evans JR, Dhahbi J, Chellappa K, Han DS, Spindler S, Sladek FM. Soybean oil is more obesogenic and diabetogenic than coconut oil and fructose in mouse: potential role for the liver. PLoS ONE 2015;10(7):e0132672.

Yaffe K, Falvey CM, Hamilton N et al. Association between hypoglycemia and dementia in a biracial cohort of older adults with diabetes mellitus. JAMA Intern Med 2013;173(14):1300-1306.

Yancy WS Jr., Westman EC, McDuffie JR et al. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet vs orlistat plus a low-fat diet for weight loss. Arch Intern Med 2010;170(2):136-145.

Masterjohn C. Fat and diabetes: bad press, good paper, and the reemergence of our good friend

glutathione [blog]. Weston A. Price Foundation, Aug. 30, 2011.

Khardori R. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Medscape, Jan. 12, 2017.

Olatunbosun ST. Insulin resistance. Medscape, Jan. 30, 2015.

Mayo Clinic. Diabetes and Alzheimer’s linked. Mar. 23, 2016.

Lowering Blood Sugar with Diet

Dr. Bernstein’s Diabetes Solution: The Complete Guide to Achieving Normal Blood Sugars, Third Ed., Richard K. Bernstein. Little Brown, New York, 2007, ISBN 978-0316167161. P. 259 [No need for alcohol swabbing] 

 Protein Power. Michael R. Eades and Mary Dan Eades, Bantam Books, 1997. ISBN: 978-0553574753 

 The earliest references to The 5% Club is found in this posting: 

 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Developing a Diabetes Mellitus Comprehensive Care Plan - © 2011 

 Evolution in the American Diabetes Association Standards of Care. John B. Buse, Clinical Diabetes 21:24-26, 2003 

 Meridian Valley Lab. Kraft Prediabetes Profile: patterns overview.

 Mofidi A, Ferraro ZM, Stewart KA et al. The acute impact of ingestion of sourdough and whole-grain breads on blood glucose, insulin, and incretins in overweight and obese men. J Nutr Metab 2012:184710.

 Najjar AM, Parsons PM, Duncan AM et al. The acute impact of ingestion of breads of varying composition on blood glucose, insulin and incretins following first and second meals. Br J Nutr 2008;101(3):391-398.

 Taubes G, Couzens CK. Big sugar’s sweet little lies. Mother Jones, Nov/Dec 2012.

 News24Wire. “Remove sugar from your diet”: Tim Noakes. BusinessTech, Feb. 15, 2016.

 No Fructose. Who has more to hide?

Low Carb and Ketogenic Diets for Lowering Blood Sugar

Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets for Weight Loss and Heart Disease Risk Reduction. A Randomized Trial. Michael L. Dansinger et al. JAMA. 2005;293:43-53 

 Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women. Christopher D. Gardner et al. JAMA. 2007;297:969-977 

A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet to Treat Type 2 Diabetes. William S Yancy, Jr. et al. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005; 2: 34. 

 Effect of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes. Mary C. Gannon et al. Diabetes 53:2375-2382, 2004 

 Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Blood Glucose Levels, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Guenther Boden et al. Ann Intern Med 2005 Mar 15;142(6):403-11 

 The Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Versus Conventional Weight Loss Diets in Severely Obese Adults: One-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Trial. Stern L et al. Ann Intern Med. 2004 May 18; 140(10):778-85 

 Lasting Improvement of Hyperglycaemia and Bodyweight: Low-Carbohydrate Diet in Type 2 Diabetes. A Brief Report. Nielsen JV et al. Ups J Med Sci. 2005;110(2):179-83 

 Diet 101: The Truth  About Low Carb Diets, Jenny Ruhl, Technion Books, Turners Falls, 2012 ISBN 978-0-9647116-5-5 

 Masterjohn C. Mastering Nutrition Episode 6: why “glycation” is a bad reason to restrict carbs. May 2, 2016.

 Feinman RD, Pogozelski WK, Astrup A, et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base. Nutrition 2015;31(1):1–

 A low carbohydrate diet in type 1 diabetes: clinical experience--a brief report, Nielsen JV1, Jönsson E, and Ivarsson, Ups J Med Sci. 2005;110(3):267-73

 Low carbohydrate diet in type 1 diabetes, long-term improvement and adherence: A clinical audit, Nielsen JV1, Gando C, Joensson E & Paulsson C., Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2012 May 31;4(1):23. doi: 10.1186/1758-5996-4-23.

 Effects of carbohydrate counting on glucose control and quality of life over 24 weeks in adult patients with type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: a randomized, prospective clinical trial (GIOCAR)., Laurenzi A1, Bolla AM, Panigoni G, Doria V, Uccellatore A, Peretti E, Saibene A, Galimberti G, Bosi E, Scavini M., Diabetes Care. 2011 Apr;34(4):823-7. doi: 10.2337/dc10-1490. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

 Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes: stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 44 months follow-up

 Short-term effects of severe dietary carbohydrate-restriction advice in Type 2 diabetes–a randomized controlled trial

 Long-term effects of a diet loosely restricting carbohydrates on HbA1c levels, BMI and tapering of sulfonylureas in type 2 diabetes: a 2-year follow-up study 

The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

 Comparative Study of the Effects of a 1-Year Dietary Intervention of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Versus a Low-Fat Diet on Weight and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes

 Effects of a Mediterranean-Style Diet on the Need for Antihyperglycemic Drug Therapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

 BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care 2017: Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes

 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report: Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United States, 2014. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2014.

 American Diabetes Association. “Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes–2006 A position statement of the American Diabetes Association.”Diabetes care 29.9 (2006): 2140-2157.

 Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. “Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies.” The Lancet 375.9733 (2010): 2215-2222.

 O’Gara, Patrick T., et al. “2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 61.4 (2013): e78-e140.

 Aguiree, Florencia, et al. “IDF diabetes atlas.” (2013)

 Update 2014”. IDF. International Diabetes Federation. Retrieved 29 November 2014.

 Geiss LS, Wang J, Cheng YJ. Thompson TJ, Barker L; Li Y, Albright AL, Gregg EW. Prevalence and incidence trends for diagnosed diabetes among adults aged 20 to 79 years, United States, 1980-2012. JAMA 2014; 312:1218-1226.

 Yancy Jr, William S., et al. “A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes.” Nutr Metab (Lond) 2 (2005): 34.

 Westman, Eric C., et al. “The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.” Nutr Metab (Lond) 5 (2008): 36.

 Hussain, Talib A., et al. “Effect of low-calorie versus low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in type 2 diabetes.” Nutrition 28.10 (2012): 1016-1021.

 Noakes, Manny, et al. “Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk.” Nutrition & metabolism 3.1 (2006): 7.

 Nielsen, Jørgen Vesti, et al. “Low carbohydrate diet in type 1 diabetes, long-term improvement and adherence: A clinical audit.” Diabetol Metab Syndr 4.1 (2012): 23.

 Feinman, Richard D., et al. “Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence base.”Nutrition 31.1 (2015): 1-13.

Diabetes Drugs 

The FDA mandated “Prescribing Information” for all drugs can be found in the Physicians Desk Reference (PDR) or search for it on the Web. Your pharmacist can also give you a copy. 

Metformin and Insulin Suppress Hepatic Gluconeogenesis through Phosphorylation of CREB Binding Protein. Ling He et al,, Cell Volume 137, Issue 4, 635-646, 15 May 2009. 

Metformin Increases AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activity in Skeletal Muscle of Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes. Nicolas Musi et al. Diabetes 51: 2074-2081 

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Conducts the Ischemic Stress Response Orchestra. Lawrence H. Young. Circulation. 2008;117:832-840 

Enhanced secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 by biguanide compounds. Yasuda N et al.  Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Nov 15;298(5):779-84. 

New Users of Metformin Are at Low Risk of Incident Cancer: A cohort study among people with type 2 diabetes. Gillian Libby et al. Diabetes Care September 2009 vol. 32 no. 9 1620-1625. 

Science Daily: Diabetes Drug Kills Cancer Stem Cells in Combination Treatment in Mice. 

Metformin Associated With Lower Cancer Mortality in Type 2 Dia-betes: ZODIAC-16 Gijs W.D. Landman et al. Diabetes Care February 2010 vol. 33 no. 2 322-326. 

Metformin Treatment Exerts Antiinvasive and Antimetastatic Ef-fects in Human Endometrial Carcinoma Cells.  J. Clin. Endo &Metab, 2010; 96 (3): 808  

Diabetes, Metformin, and Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women. Rowan T. Chlebowski et al.. J Clin Oncol June 11, 2012;doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.39.7505. 

Long-term Effects of Metformin on Metabolism and Microvascular and Macrovascular Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Kooy et all.  Arch. Int. Med., 169 (6), 616-625 

Secondary Failure of Metformin Monotherapy in Clinical Practice. Jonathan B. Brown. Diabetes Care Diabetes Care March 2010 vol. 33 no. 3 501-506 doi: 10.2337/dc09-1749 

Incidence of Lactic Acidosis in Metformin Users. Stang M et al. Diabetes Care. Jun 1999, 22(6) p925-7 

Risk of Fatal and Nonfatal Lactic Acidosis with Metformin Use in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Salpeter SR et al. Arch Intern Med 2003 Nov 24;163(21):2594-602. 

Effects of Short-Term Treatment with Metformin on Serum Concentrations of Homocysteine, Folate and Vitamin B12 in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Wulffele MG et al. J Intern Med 2003 Nov;254(5):455-63. 

Effects of the Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitor Acarbose on the Development of Long-Term Complications in Diabetic Animals: Pathophysioloical and Therapeutic Implications. Creutzfeldt W. Diabetes Metab Res rev. 1999 15(4):289-96 

STOP-NIDDM Trial Research Group. Acarbose for Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM Randomised Trial. Chiasson JL et al. Lancet 2002 Jun 15;359 (9323):2072-7 

Dose-Response Relation Between Sulfonylurea Drugs and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Scot H. Simpson, et al. CMAJ January 17, 2006; 174 

Risk of coronary artery disease associated with initial sulphonylurea treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: A matched case-control study Shaukat M. Sadikot et al. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Volume 82, Issue 3, December 2008, Pages 391-395

Metformin, Sulfonylureas, or Other Antidiabetes Drugs and the Risk of Lactic Acidosis or Hypoglycemia: A nested case-control analysis. Michael Bodmer et. at. Diabetes Care  31:2086-2091, 

2008 Chronic Antidiabetic Sulfonylureas In Vivo: Reversible Effects on Mouse Pancreatic ß-Cells. Remedi MS et al. PLoS Med 5(10): e206 

Effects of antidiabetic drugs on dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity: nateglinide is an inhibitor of DPP IV and augments the antidiabetic activity of glucagon-like peptide-1. Duffy NA et al.  Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 30;568(1-3):278-86 

Chronic Antidiabetic Sulfonylureas In Vivo: Reversible Effects on Mouse Pancreatic ß-Cells. Remedi MS et al. PLoS Med 5(10): e206 

BYETTA Study Showed Sustained Blood Glucose Control Over Three Years in People with Type 2 Diabetes. Lilly Amylin PR Newswire press release. June 25, 2007

FDA Safety Information for Byetta 

Acute Pancreatitis in Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Exenatide or Sitagliptin: A retrospective observational pharmacy claims analysis. Rajesh Garg et al. Diabetes Care, Nov  2010  vol. 33  no. 11  2349-2354 

Pancreatitis, Pancreatic, and Thyroid Cancer With Glucagon-Like Peptide-1–Based Therapies.Michael Elashoff et al. Gastroenterology 2011;141:150–156 

Safety and tolerability of sitagliptin in clinical studies: a pooled analysis of data from 10,246 patients with type 2 diabetes. Debora Williams-Herman et al. [at Merck] BMC Endocrine Disorders 2010, 10:7 

FDA: Information for Healthcare Professionals - Acute pancreatitis and sitaglipitn. 

CD26 [DPP-4] Is Negatively Associated with Inflammation in Human and Experimental Arthritis. Nathalie Busso et al. Am J Pathol 2005;166:433-442 

Studies of DPP-4 gene function: 

A Role for Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV in Suppressing the Malignant Phenotype of Melanocytic Cells. Umadevi V. Wesleya et al. J. Exp. Med Volume 190, Number 3, August 2, 1999 311-322 

CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV regulates prostate cancer metastasis by degrading SDF-1/CXCL12. Sun YX et al, Clin Exp Metastasis. 2008;25(7):765-76. Epub 2008 Jun 18. 

Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPPIV) Inhibits Cellular Invasion of Melanoma Cells. Pethiyagoda CL et al. Clin Exp Metastasis 2001, 18:391-400 

Prolonged Survival and Decreased Invasive Activity Attributable to Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Overexpression in Ovarian Carcinoma. Hiroaki Kajiyama et al. Cancer Research 62, 2753-2757, May 15, 2002 


Scientist Says Executive of Avandia Firm Tried to Bully. Study by Researcher Tied Drug to Heart Ills. Diedtra Henderson, Boston Globe. June 7, 2007 

Thiazolidinediones and Heart Failure: A Teleo-Analysis. Sonal Singh et al. Diabetes Care, published online ahead of print May 29, 2007 

Effects of Pioglitazone Versus Diet and Exercise on Metabolic Health and Fat Distribution in Upper Body Obesity. Samyah Shadid, MD and Michael D. Jensen, MD. Diabetes Care 26:3148-3152, 2003 

Thiazolidinedione-Associated Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema. Kermani A, Garg A. Mayo Clin Proc 2003 Sep;78(9):1088-91 

Glitazone Use May Be Associated with Macular Edema in Diabetics. Karla Harby. 

Hepatotoxicity of the Thiazolidinediones. Tolman KG, Chandramouli. J. Clin Liver Dis May 2003, 7(2) p369-79 

Long-term use of thiazolidinediones and fractures in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Yoon K. Loke et al. CMAJ published on Dec. 10, 2008. 

Thiazolidinedione Use and the Longitudinal Risk of Fractures in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Mellitus Zeina A. Habib et al. J Clin Endo & Metab Vol. 95, No. 2 592-600 

FDA reviewing preliminary saftey information on Actos. 

FDA Drug Safety Communication: Update to ongoing safety review of Actos (pioglitazone) and increased risk of bladder cancer.   


Olatunbosun ST. Insulin resistance. Medscape, Jan. 30, 2015.

Think Like a Pancreas: A Practical Guide to Managing Diabetes with Insulin. Gary Scheiner. Marlowe, 2004. ISBN: 1569244367 

Dr. Bernstein’s Diabetes Solution,


Using Insulin, Everything You Need for Success With Insulin. John Walsh et al. Torrey Pines Press. ISBN: 978-1884804854 

Supplements and Healing Foods 

Insulin Potentiating Factor and Chromium Content of Selected Foods and Spices. Khan A, Bryden et al. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990 Mar;24(3):183-8 

Cinnamon supplementation does not improve glycemic control in postmenopausal type 2 diabetes patients. Vanschoonbeek K et al., J Nutr. 2006 Apr;136(4):977-80. 

The Effect of Cinnamon on Glucose Control and Lipid Parameters William L Baker et al. Diabetes Care October 1, 2007 

Elevated Intakes of Supplemental Chromium Improve Glucose and Insulin Variables in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes. RA Anderson et al. Diabetes, Vol 46, Issue 11 1786-1791 

Chromium, Glucose Intolerance and Diabetes. Richard A. Anderson, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 17, No. 6, 548-555 (1998) 

Glucose and Insulin Responses to Dietary Chromium Supplements: A Meta-Analysis. Althuis et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2002 Jul;76(1):148-55 

Chromium (III) Tris (Picolinate) is Mutagenic at the Hypoxanthine (Guanine) Phosphoribosyltransferase Locus in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells. Stearns DM et al. Mutat Res (Netherlands), Jan 15 2002, 513(1-2) p135-42 

MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of Antioxidant Vitamin Supplementation in 20,536 High-Risk Individuals: A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial. Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. Lancet Jul 6 2002, 360(9326) p23-33 

Vitamin C and Hyperglycemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer—Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) study: a Population-based Study. Sargeant LA et al. Diabetes Care (United States), Jun 2000, 23(6) p726-32 

Occupational Social Class, Educational Level and Area Deprivation Independently Predict Plasma Ascorbic Acid Concentration: A Cross-Sectional Population Based Study in the Norfolk Cohort of the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). Shohaimi S et al. Eur J Clin Nutr Mar 31 2004 

Double-Blind, Randomised Study of the Effect of Combined Treatment With Vitamin C And E on Albuminuria in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Gaede P, Poulsen et al. Diabet Med Sep 2001, 18(9) p756-60 

Mortality in Randomized Trials Of Antioxidant Supplements for Primary and Secondary Prevention: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D et al. JAMA 2007 Feb 28;297(8):842-57 

A Miracle Diabetes Cure. Gretchen Becker. 

Dr. Bernstein's Diabetes Solution, op. cit. p. 246. Vanadyl Sulfate. 

Oral Administration of RAC-Alpha-Lipoic Acid Modulates Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial. Jacob S, Ruus P et al. Free Radic Biol Med (United States), Aug 1999, 27(3-4) p309-14 

Oral Treatment With Alpha-Lipoic Acid Improves Symptomatic Diabetic Polyneuropathy. The SYDNEY Trial. Dan Ziegler et al. Diabetes Care 29:2365-2370, 2006 

Alpha-Lipoic Acid: A Multifunctional Antioxidant that Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Evans JL, Goldfine ID. Diabetes Technol Ther Autumn 2000, 2(3) p401-13 

Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men And Women. Ruy Lopez-Ridaura et al. Diabetes Care 27:134-140, 2003 

Dietary Magnesium Intake in Relation to Plasma Insulin Levels and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women. Lopez-Ridaura R et al. Diabetes Care 27:59-65, 2003 

Fructose, Weight Gain, and the Insulin Resistance Syndrome. Sharon S. Elliott et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Vol 76 No. 5 911-922, 2002 

Experimental Studies on the Role of Fructose in the Development of Diabetic Complications. Sakai M, Oimomi M et al. J Med Sci (Japan), Dec 2002, 48(5-6) p125-36 

The Whole Soy Story: The Dark Side of America’s Favorite Health Food. Kaayla T. Daniel, Ph.D. NewTrends Publishing, Inc, 2005. ISBN-13: 978-0967089751 

Use of Soy Protein Supplement and Resultant Need for Increased Dose of Levothyroxine. Bell DS et al. Endocr Pract 2001 May-Jun;7(3):193-4 

The Role of Vitamin D and Calcium in Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Anastassios G. Pittas et al. J Clin Endo & Metab Vol. 92, No. 6 2017-2029 

Oral Administration of RAC-Alpha-Lipoic Acid Modulates Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial. Jacob S et al. Free Radic Biol Med Aug 1999, 27(3-4) p309-14 

Alpha-Lipoic Acid: A Multifunctional Antioxidant that Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Evans JL, Goldfine. Diabetes Technol Ther Autumn 2000, 2(3) p401-13 

Benfotiamine Prevents Macro- and Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress Following a Meal Rich in Advanced Glycation End Products in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes. Alin Stirban et al. Diabetes Care 29:2064-2071, 2006 

Benfotiamine Blocks Three Major Pathways of Hyperglycemic Damage and Prevents Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy. Hans-Peter Hammes et al. Nature Medicine 9, 294-299 (2003) 

Benfotiamine in the Treatment of Diabetic Polyneuropathy: A Three-Week Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study (BEDIP Study). Haupt E, Ledermann et al. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005 Feb;43(2):71-7 

Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Catharina Mattila et al. Diabetes Care 30:2569-2570, 2007 

Glucose tolerance and vitamin D: Effects of treating vitamin D deficiency. Kamilia Tai. Nutrition. Volume 24, Issue 10, Pages 950-956 (October 2008). 

The effect of different doses of vitamin D3 on markers of vascular health in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. M. D. Witham et al. Diabetologia Volume 53, Number 10, 2112-2119, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-010-1838-1 

Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. Thomas J. Wang et al.Circulation. 2008;117:503-511. 

Serum Vitamin D Concentration Does Not Predict Insulin Action or Secretion in European Subjects With the Metabolic Syndrome. Hanne L. Gulseth et al. Diabetes Care April 2010 vol. 33 no. 4 923-925. doi: 10.2337/dc09-1692 

Association of Oral Calcitriol with Improved Survival in Nondialyzed CKD. Abigail B. Shoben et. al. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology Published online May 7, 2008. 

Got Calcium? Welcome to the Calcium-Alkali Syndrome. Ami M. Patel and Stanley Goldfarb. J Am Soc Nephrol 21: 1440-1443, 2010 

Vanadium & Diabetes, Benefit or Harm? John Walsh. 

Coenzyme Q10 improves blood pressure and glycaemic control: a controlled trial in subjects with type 2 diabetes.Hodgson JM, Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Nov;56(11):1137-42. 

Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. Singh RB et al: Journal of Human Hypertension. (1999) 13, 203-208 

Diabetes and Exercise

Exercise Effects of Exercise on Glycemic Control and Body Mass in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials. Boulé N G et al. JAMA. 2001;286:1218-1227. 

Intensity and Amount of Physical Activity in Relation to Insulin Sensitivity: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis et al. JAMA. 1998;279:669-674. 

Target Heart Rate. American Heart Association. 

Some Long-Term Sequelae of Poorly Controlled Diabetes that are Frequently Undiagnosed, Misdiagnosed or Mistreated. Richard K. Bernstein.> 

Carpal Tunnel May Predict Diabetes (WebMD): 

Thickness of the Supraspinatus and Biceps Tendons in Diabetic Patients. Mujde Akturk et al. Diabetes Care 25:408, 2002 

Dr. Bernstein’s Diabetes Solution, op. cit. 214-222.

Using Pedometers to Increase Physical Activity and Improve Health: A Systematic Review. Dena M. Bravata, MD et. al. JAMA 2007;298(19):2296-2304 

Keeping it Off: Winning at Weight Loss. Robert H. Olson and Susan C. Colvin. Gilliland, 1989. ISBN: 0671532944 

Normal weight men and women overestimate exercise energy expenditure. Willbond SM et. al.  J Sports Med Phys Fitness. (2010) 50(4):377-84. 


Is it Really Type 2 Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Of Adulthood: Unique Features that Distinguish It From Types 1 and 2. Fadi Nabhan et al. Postgraduate Medicine Vol 117, No 3, Mar 2005 

Genetic Similarities Between LADA, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes  Camilla Cervin et al, Diabetes DOI: 10.2337/db07-0299 

Common variants in the TCF7L2 gene help to differentiate autoimmune from non-autoimmune diabetes in young (15–34 years) but not in middle-aged (40–59 years) diabetic patients  E. Bakhtadze et. al. Diabetologia. DOI 10.1007/s00125-008-1161-2 

Identification of MODY: The Implications for Holly. Jo Dalton, Maggie Shepherd. Journal of Diabetes Nursing Jan, 2004 

Joslin Diabetes Center.             /joslin_study_identifies_gene_linked_to_rare_form_of_diabetes.html 

Fung J. Sleep deprivation and obesity-hormonal obesity. Intensive Dietary Management, Dec. 28, 2014.

Determinants of the Development of Diabetes (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young- in Carriers of HNF-1{alpha} Mutations. Evidence for Parent-of-Origin Effect. Tomasz Klupa et al. Diabetes Care 25:2292-2301, 2002 

Altered Insulin Secretory Responses to Glucose In Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects with Mutations in the Diabetes Susceptibility Gene MODY3 on Chromosome 12MM. Byrne et al. Diabetes Vol 45, Issue 11 1503-1510 

Assessment of Insulin Sensitivity in Glucokinase-Deficient Subjects. Clement K et al. Diabetes Care 25:2292-2301, 2002 

Genes and Diabetes: Molecular and Clinical Characterization of Mutations in Transcription Factors. Timothy M. Frayling et al. Diabetes Vol. 50, Sup 1, Feb 2001 

Genetic Types of Diabetes Including MODY (UK - Exeter Research & Testing) 

Diabetes Genes 

Diagnosis and Management of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young. Timsit, Jose et al. Treat in Endo 4(1):9-18, 2005 (Contains finding that parents carrying gene may not have been diagnosed) 

Working with Doctors and Hospitals 

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists: Most Recent AACE Guidelines. Diabetes in Control. Dr. Bernstein’s Diabetes Solution. op cit. Appendix B p. 462. Sample doctor letter. 

Medical research is surprisingly silent on the topic of the competence of medical practitioners. This chapter draws mostly on thousands of anecdotal reports posted by people with diabetes who have achieved excellent control. 

What Can You Eat? 

The Low-Carb Comfort Food Cookbook. Michael R. Eades et al.Wiley, 2002. ISBN: 978-0471267577. Magic Rolls are on P. 22. 

500 Low-Carb Recipes: 500 Recipes from Snacks to Dessert, That the Whole Family Will Love. Dana Carpender. Fair Winds Press, 2002. ISBN: 978-1931412063 

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